Planning of Meaning-Centered Technical Teacher Training Institutes in India

August 26, 2013 in Volume 01

Planning of Meaning-Centered Technical Teacher Training Institutes in India

Vedhathiri Thanikachalam

Former Professor and Head of Center for International Affairs, National Institute of Technical Teachers Training and Research, Chennai-600113, India

Email: [email protected]

Abstract

A research study has been conducted to evaluate the achievement of one of the four technical teacher’s institutes in India by using SCORES model which is providing a process for leading at a high performance and meaning-centered institutes. “SCORES” is an acronym that represents the six elements evident in every meaning-centered high performing organization. The revised model consists of six activity specific elements which are given below:

S= Shared Information and Open Communication among the faculty and the administrator of teacher training institutes

C= Compelling Vision of the teacher training institute to offer meaningful curriculum development, instructional packages, institutional development, teacher education and training programs

O= Ongoing Learning activities like short-term, long-term, seminars for the teachers and administrators

R= Relentless Focus on Results of the teacher training institutes

E= Energizing Systems and Structures of the teacher training institutes

S= Shared Power and High Involvement of the faculty members and the administrators

This model has been adopted to evaluate the performance of one of the four Technical Teachers Training Institutes in India. The qualitative method of naturalistic inquiry developed by Guba Egon (1978) has been used to evaluate the performance of this institute. Data on the programs, faculty, and institute structure were obtained from the websites, annual reports, and discussion with the faculty. The model substantially predicted the reasons for low performance in many areas. Also by using this model, remedial measures to improve the performance of the institute have been suggested. The design of the teachers’ training institutes is to be based on the meaning–centered organizational design which will provide high performance.

Keywords: SCORES model, institutional design, meaning-centered teacher training institutes, institutional evaluation, high performing teacher training institute

Introduction

Many researchers evaluated the existing institutes and their performance. They arrived at various factors which are to perform as meaning-centered educational institutes. Esman (1966) attempted to bring the underlying factors of performance. Ken Blanchard et al (2007) focused on the high performance which is driven by the meaning-centered organization. The objective of this study is to assess the reasons for short fall in the planned performance which is devoid of the meaning-centered teacher training institutes.

Literature Review

The Esman model (1966) considered the macro approach utilized in evaluating the achievement of the institutes. According to Guba Egon (1979) naturalistic paradigm assumes multiple realities, subject–object interrelatedness, and conceptuality which are also some of the basic elements within the meaning-centered education paradigm (Kovbasyuk & Blessinger). Wolf Robert and Tymitz Barbara (1978) prepared guidelines based on naturalistic evaluation of institutional capabilities. This approach helped the researcher to evaluate the programs of technical teachers training institutes in India. Naturalistic evaluation is characterized by concern with spontaneous activities of the faculty and administrators, ability to respond to client requirements, stress on wide-ranging implications, participation by customers and clients, and their faculty who are served by the institute. The whole research centers around the achievement reported in the annual reports of the four institutes and information presented in the websites. Guba Egan (1978) stated that conventional methods have been disappointing or inadequate, but naturalistic inquiry differs from conventional science in minimizing constraints on antecedent conditions (controls) and on output (dependent variables). Naturalistic inquiry focuses on problems and promoted by openness and fairness. Hence, this naturalistic inquiry has been used to the achievement of the technical teachers training institute through SCORES parameters.

Many contemporary social science researchers are defining that an effective way to discover how success is achieved is to study the behaviors and actions of those who excel at what they do. Based on such studies Rouche (1982) has developed an integral model of excellence schools. In all these models we do not assess the intricate process adopted by teacher training institutes for meeting the needs of the clients.

Eunice Parisi and Jesse Stoner (1988), Don Carew (2001), Fay Kandadurian (2001) and Ken Blanchard (2004 & 2007) conducted an extensive research and developed SCORES model for leading at higher performance organizations. SCORES is an acronym that presents the six elements evident in meaning-centered high performing institutions. The “SCORES” model focuses more critically the development processes of meaning- centered educational institute. The factor “leadership” is common to both, the term “doctrine” in the Esman model and “vision” in the SCORES is more or less same, but compelling vision is more focused on the meaning-centered education. The term “transactions” is similar to “Relentless focus on the customer’s results” in the SCORES model, but the relentless focus gives an edge over the Esman model for creating meaning centered education. Both the models consider structure of the organizations. The Esman Model focuses on the growth of the institution. The SCORES model focuses on delegation to the faculty which was not considered in the Esman model. Shared information and open communication were not considered in the Esman model, but it provides direct reference to transactions with various external agencies. Both the models assume that there is sufficient administrative, financial and academic autonomy in the institutes. Leadership is not confined to the CEO alone, but it is centered around the Chairman, Secretary, Board of Governors, the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) and the faculty of the institute.. The Esman model does not consider the institutional learning and continuous faculty development where as the SCORES model highlights the need for these which is important in meaning-centered education and learning.

Research Methodology

Various academic activities of one of the four teacher training institutes were evaluated based on the goals and mission statements available in the websites and the annual reports of these institutes using the naturalistic evaluation principles. The achievements are considered and compared with other three institutes. The major decisions taken over a period of seven years are compared which affected the progress of the institute. Extensive discussions were held with key faculty members for getting the critical information.

The following academic activities are identified for evaluation: i) faculty and their qualification, ii) faculty training, iii) academic programs, iv) outcomes of the programs and v) administration. They are compared against the two institutional development models for assessing the reasons for deficiencies and suggesting remedial measures.

Analysis of Design of Meaning-Centered Teacher Training Institutions

The SCORES model has been utilized in this research work to evaluate the performance of meaning-centered institutes.

S = Shared Information and Open Communication Among Faculty and Administrators

In high performing national institutions, information needed to make appropriate decisions has to be made available and be communicated to the faculty. Sharing relevant information and facilitating open communication builds trust and encouraging the faculty to plan high end programs (Master/Doctoral/ overseas/short-term/medium term/out reach /distance education/ continuing education/ extramural/ online/ non-formal/ seminars/ conferences/work-shops) and educational projects (sponsored/ bided/ global/ shared through networks). The key faculty members undertake risks and use their creativity for development. It encourages faculty to act like owners of the institute. Information is power. The readily available information is to be circulated. This empowers the faculty who will make creative decisions aligned with the institute’s goal and values. Open communication is lifeblood of the institute. Encouraging dialogue keeps the institute healthy, agile, flexible, and dynamic. This concept is not there in the Esman model.

The SCORES model has been used to examine the ways through which the information is to be shared with the Administration, Accounts Officer (ACO), Departments, Board of Governors and Chairman, Directorate of Technical Education (DTE), Extension Centers of the Institute. The possible flow of information between the institute and external agencies is shown in Table 1 (Refer to Appendix).

Use of Internet and the institute website: For communicating the information to clients, departments, and extension centers, the facilities like Internet and the institute’s website can be used. The resolutions of the Board of Governors, annual reports, ministry’s policy letters and university’s communications could be put up in the website.

If the important information is not communicated to the appropriate department/ extension center, even unintentionally, it will produce only harm to the system. Many times, the CEO may feel that there is no need to circulate or communicate the vital information. This act will produce long-term harm to the growth of the institute. Some of the selected events are analyzed and shown in Table 2 based on the available data and information from the websites and annual reports of these institutes. Further additional information has been collected through discussion with the faculty of these institutes.

Table 2 (Refer to Appendix) gives only a sample set of key communications which were not disseminated to the faculty in the last seven years. Some of the important decisions of the government were not reported to the Board of Governors also. The above analysis proves the reason for the retarded growth of the institute. If the key information is not shared with the faculty, the institute cannot get the best performance from the departments.

C = Compelling Vision of the Institute to Plan Meaningful Educational Programs

A compelling vision is the hallmark of a high performing institute. It answers the question “why do we exist?” When every faculty supports such an institute’s vision- including the purpose, meaningful picture of the future, and values it creates a deliberate, highly focused culture that drives educational results toward a great good. In these institutes, faculty members are encouraged by, excited about, and dedicated to such a vision. They can describe the vision, their commitment to it, and clearly see their role in supporting it. They have a noble sense of purpose that creates and focuses energy. As a result, their personal values are aligned with the values of the institute. They can describe a clear picture of what they intend to create. Every faculty would be aligned with and going in the same direction.

Leaders who demonstrated strong visionary leadership had the highest performing teams. Leaders with good management skills but without vision had average faculty team performance. Leaders who were identified as weak in vision and management skills had poor performing teams.  A vision builds trust, collaboration, interdependence, motivation, and mutual responsibility for success. Vision helps faculty make smart choices, because their decisions are being made with the end result in mind. A compelling vision creates a strong culture in which the energy of every one in the institution is aligned.

Current vision of the third Teacher Training Institute

“Institute envisions becoming a leading institute in promoting excellence Technical and Vocational Education (TVET) systems by planning, designing, developing and evaluating quality training program, learning resources, research studies for technical education institutes, industry and community”.

This statement does not provide a picture of future status of the Institute, clear values and significant purpose of the Institute. It concentrates only on routine activities. None of the directors have deliberated in the Academic Council about preparing the detailed project proposal for applying for the deemed university status. Only first and second teacher training institutes applied for the deemed university status. The third institute is not able to offer part-time Ph.D. program for the polytechnic faculty and the engineers from   industry that are outside the affiliating University’s jurisdiction. It also faces problems in getting the approval for the innovative interdisciplinary post graduate programs in engineering both from the National Council and from the affiliating University. The evaluation committee put the question “what is the role of third teacher training institute?” It also stated that the institute did not offer undergraduate programs in the engineering. But the third teacher training institute is a faculty development institute for polytechnics and engineering colleges. All the faculty members of the polytechnics and engineering colleges possess the undergraduate degrees, and hence, there is no need to offer the undergraduate degree programs. In other teacher training institute, the CEO has sought legal intervention and got the approval for the programs.

If the vision has to be achieved, this has to be split in to a set of mission statements. This will provide an opportunity to check whether the activities are undertaken to implement the mission. This analysis shown in Table-3 (Refer to Appendix) is based on the discussions, the data/ information available in the websites and annual reports of the institutes.

Even though the mission statements give direction for the development, the implementation is lagging far behind due to ineffective leadership. Since the vision of the institute did not focus on the future, the institute has not reached the university status. It also suffers from significant purpose of transactions. This is one of the reasons for changing the mandate of the Ministry of Human Resource Development. Since, the new directors who do not have expertise in teacher training institute, join for a fixed tenure of five years, they focus on their future and use the institute as a stepping stone.

Objectives are precise statements to implement the various development activities of the institute. They are centered on the mission and ultimately connected to the vision. An analysis has been done, based on the available statements in the website and the annual reports of the institutes, to verify the achievement of the objectives and presented in Table- 4 (Refer to Appendix). In addition, discussions were made with the faculty members of the institutes. Possible alternate methods to obtain the clients’ academic needs based on the meaningful education.

Every year an appropriate questionnaire could be developed and be distributed to all polytechnics , engineering colleges, technical universities, and Directorates of Technical Education for getting the information on the short-term and medium-term courses, long-term programs, on-line courses, instructional materials, video and multi- \media learning packages, systemic research on the state specific institutional development needs and training the trainers. The Extension Centers and the CDC could analyze and bring a report for the discussion with the Heads of Departments of the teacher training institute for possible implementation in the next academic year. Then with this input, the program development committee could be convened with representatives of the state, polytechnics and engineering colleges. A strategic action plan could be prepared for implementation. This process was used during the implementation of World Bank assisted projects in Technician Education which yielded good results to offer meaningful services.

All the client states should find a place in the Board of Governors which is not a current practice. Also there should be state specific annual achievement report, and the performance of the institutes for the state. This will help the institute to diagnose the causes for deficiency and possible remedial measures. This was done under the World Bank Assisted Project.

O = Ongoing Learning Undergone by the Faculty and the Utilization for the Development of the Third Institute

High performance meaningful institutes constantly focus on improving their capabilities through learning, building knowledge capital, and transferring learning throughout the institute. Organizational learning is different from individual learning. High performing institutes engage in both. Every faculty member is always striving to get better, both individually and as a part of the institute. Managerial competencies are required to solve the client’s problems and to provide continuous support for development. The faculty members have many opportunities for learning on the projects and programs that are available through the government. Each moment gives the lesson to sharpen the general theories and concepts. In addition 18 (45%) faculty members completed their Ph.D. either in their area of specialization or in engineering education on part-time basis. Four faculty members completed their Master’s degree in engineering and four are doing Ph.D. as part-time research scholars.

In some cases whenever faculty members have been selected for further learning through the Government of India scheme, they were not approved for accepting the training programs. This has impacted the growth of the institute. No other institutional development model gave importance to ongoing learning. The performance is largely due to the competencies acquired by the faculty which are important for the high performance in offering technical teacher training and other related services. Since, the technology is fast developing; there is a need to learn current developments which will have more impact on the institute.

Encouragement to attend the national and international seminars, conferences and training programs

Many faculty members send their technical articles to seminars and conferences for publication. They are eligible to get the reimbursement of the expenditure as per the rules of the institute, but they are denied permission to attend these seminars and training programs. Even the faculty members who were selected through bilateral schemes were not permitted to undergo the training programs. They should be encouraged for undertaking these activities.

R = Relentless Focus on Client / Customer / Stakeholder Results for Implementing Meaningful Educational Programs

No matter what institute they are in, high performing institutes understand who their clients are and measure their results accordingly. They produce outstanding results, in part because of an almost obsessive focus on results. However, what is unique is the way in which they focus on those results from the view point of the customer / client / stakeholder. In the case on training institutes the following analysis on the relentless focus on the client results are presented in Table 6 (Refer to Appendix).

The above table is not exhaustive, but presents only a sample with respect to third training institute. Even though, the institute has Service and Recruitment rules and regulations, Memorandum of Administration and other conduct rules, the focus on the client’s needs are incomplete. Since, the institute has been planned as an in-service institute, the stake holder’s focus on their needs. The performance is always evaluated from this point of view by the state governments and the central government. Various evaluation committees constituted by the central government focus on the contribution to the human resource development through training. This mandate could not be forgotten.

Discover what your clients/ customers / stake holders want based on the meaning-centered education

Research based assessment of the performance of the polytechnics and engineering colleges and solution to the problems on meaningful education

During World Bank assisted projects in the Technician Education (Tech Ed I and II), the third Institute obtained annual performance reports on the various components of the project. An evaluation of the output and a comparison of all states, the deficiencies of the state / institutes were isolated and remedial measures were suggested. Such a practice could be reintroduced with the concurrence of the state directorates of technical education. Two of the southern states have more than 500 polytechnics and 500 -700 engineering colleges, hence training the trainers, and on-line training programs are essential. Training the trainers could be one of the possible approaches so that they can run regional programs.

E = Energizing Systems and Structures for Creating Meaning-Centered Education

The systems, structures, processes, and practices in high performance institutes are aligned to support the institute’s vision, strategic direction, and goals. This makes easier for the faculty to get their jobs done. Energizing systems and structures provide the platform for rapid response to overcome obstacles and utilize the opportunities. The bottom-line test of whether the systems and structures are energizing is to look at whether they help faculty accomplish their jobs more easily or make them difficult.

This is one factor which causes barrier to the high performance. Since, every five years new CEO takes charge without any long term focus, also they face legal hurdles which arise out of poor selection process, and they do not believe in the delegation. As the end result, the performance of the institute comes down drastically. The CEOs always try to protect themselves utilizing the institute resources. Non-delegation of authority is one of the major causes for very performance in many spheres of creative activity.

S = Shared Power and High Involvement for Creating Meaningful Education

Most of the heads of the departments have frustrated due to rejection of their proposals for the conduct of various overseas programs, short-term courses, bid documents for externally sponsored programs and proposals for inviting external faculty. Even they are not permitted to constitute the Doctoral Committees on their own. They were not permitted to organize international seminars and conferences. Their proposals for the conduct of outstation tours of the participants were rejected even though the funds are available for this. If the tours are not organized the funds are to be returned to the ministry. Whenever a faculty member receives an invitation to offer a guest lecture, their requests are rejected. All these data were obtained from the faculty.

In high performing institutions, power and decision making are generally shared and distributed throughout the institution, not guarded at the top of the hierarchy. Participation, collaboration, and teamwork are a way of life. When faculty feel valued and respected for their contributions, they are allowed to make decisions that impact their lives, and have access to information to make good decisions, they can and will function as valuable contributors to the purpose and vision of the institute. In high performing institutions a sense of personal and collective power exist.

Empowerment of Faculty

The faculty members of the institute have power through their outstanding competence, learning on the job, success and failures of the project components, the support given by the state and center, motivation to bring excellence. The key to empowerment is letting this power out.

Empowerment of the competent senior faculty requires a major shift in attitude of the CEOs. The most crucial place that this shift must occur is in the heart of every CEO and chairman. Empowerment is the creation of an institutional climate that releases the academic expertise, gained managerial experience, and the intrinsic motivation that reside in the faculty of the institute. Empowerment ensures the freedom to act and expects the faculty accountable for the results.

Process of Empowerment

1. Sharing information with the faculty

2. Creating autonomy through academic boundaries, financial limitations, and time.

3. Replacing the existing departmental hierarchy with self-directed teams and individuals

Faculty members were empowered through to permitting them to bid for the external projects and implement them as per the terms and conditions and providing full autonomy to prepare technical and financial proposals, and select the coworkers, and external specialists. Once the projects are own, the team leader will have to  be empowered to carry out the project.

Many projects like ADB-NEP- 974, UNDP, UNESCO, SIDA, and World Bank Assisted Project for the Ministry of Environment and Forests were obtained through the delegation.

When there is no empowerment, the bids prepared for training of NRI/PIO, and developing competence for the General Managers of Ordnance factories could not be submitted to project authorities.  Empowerment is what CEO gives to competent faculty. Self-leadership is what faculty member assumes to make empowerment work.

Outcomes of empowerment based on meaning-centered education

Empowerment produces creating appropriate vision in the institute, partnering academic performance, self-monitoring of the faculty performance, improves the team responsibility, creates cross functional structures, and  ready to take national and international projects .The team leaders become coaches and mentors and they are able  to judge the quality and deadlines. They own the jobs. Team becomes more responsible to achieve the stated objectives. Many Agricultural Universities are empowering the departments to prepare the payment of bills, disburse them, purchases up to $200, sanction earned leave, sanction tour plans and maintain the service registers. Once the external projects are obtained, the Head of the Department approves the implementation plan. The Heads and the Deans are to be rotated once in three years.

Who do not implement SCORES Model which will provide meaning-centered education?

According to Ken Blanchard new type of self-serving leaders overseeing a system where all money, power, and recognition move up the hierarchy and away from the faculty the institute has been established to serve. According to Blanchard the definition of the leadership is the capacity to influence others by unleashing their power and potential to impact the greater good.

Conclusion

The SCORES Model suitably revised for higher education/ teacher training institutes helps to identify the short comings in the expected high performance of teacher training institutes in India which have to offer meaning-centered education. Further, this model provides more direction for high performance of meaning-centered technical teacher education. The SCORES model could be successfully utilized as a tool for increasing the performance of any commercial enterprise or non-profit organization like university, college and school. Many elements of this model are similar to the Esman model, however, it is more powerful in bring the causes for low performance in meaning-centered education. The meaning-centered education and learning model could be implemented in all educational institutes from preschool to university. The focus should on the clients and stakeholders. The factors identified in the SCORES model have to be considered based on the client needs. The naturalistic inquiry evaluation approach will be of great use in the investigation of short comings of the educational institutes.

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Abbreviations

ACEID –-Asian Center for Educational Innovations for Development

ACO- Accounts Officer

AICTE—-All India Council for Technical Education

APEID—-Asian Program for Educational Innovation for Development

ASEAN—Association of South East Asian Nations

CDC- Curriculum Development Center of the state government

CEO—Chief Executive Officer (Principal/Dean/Director)

CPF—Contributory Provident Fund

DOTE—Directorate of Technical Education

DTE—Director of Technical Education

GPF—General Provident Fund

HRD—Human Resource Development

IIT—–Indian Institute of Technology

ITEC—Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation

ITI—Industrial Training Institute

MEA—Ministry of External Affairs

MHRD-Ministry of Human Resource Development

MOF—Ministry of Finance

M. Tech—Master of Technology

M. Tech. Ed—Master of Technical Education

NCERT—–National Council for Educational Research and Training

NITTTR—-National Technical Teachers Training and Research

NPIU——-National Project implementation Unit

NRI———Non Resident Indian

OTC——Overseas Teachers Training Course

SAARC—South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

SCAAP—Special Commonwealth African Assistance Program

SPIU——-State Project Implementation Unit

TCS ——Technical Cooperation Scheme of Government of India

TEQIP—–Technical Education Quality Improvement Project

TOT——-Training of Trainers

UGC—– University Grants Commission

UNESCO—-United Nations Economic, Scientific and Cultural Organization

 

This article was accepted for publication after a double-blind peer review process. Receiving Editor: Patrick Blessinger, St. John’s University, Queens, New York, USA.

Suggested Citation

Thanikachalam, V. (2013). Planning of Meaning-Centered Technical Teacher Training Institutes in India. The Journal of Meaning-Centered Education. Volume 1, Article 4, http://patrickblessinger.com/meaningcentered//planning-of-meaning-centered-technical-teacher-training-institutes-in-india

Copyright © [2013] Institute for Meaning-Centered Education (IMCE) and Vedhathiri Thanikachalam

The author(s) assert their right to be named as the sole author(s) of this article and the right to be granted copyright privileges related to the article without infringing on any third-party rights including copyright. The author(s) retain their intellectual property rights related to the article. The author(s) grants a non-exclusive license to IMCE to publish this article in full on the World Wide Web (prime sites and mirrors) and in electronic and/or printed form within the Journal of Meaning-Centered Education. Any other usage is prohibited without the express permission of the author(s) and IMCE.

Disclaimer

Opinions expressed in this article are those of the author, and as such do not necessarily represent the position(s) of other professionals or any institution.

Appendix

Table 1

Information source and internal departments to be shared

Sl. No. InformationSource Administr-ation ACO Depart-ment Gover-ningCouncil Extension centers DTE
1. Ministry ofEducation Y # ? $ @ *
2. Ministry of ExternalAffairs ? # Y $ @
3. State Governments ? # ? $ @ *
4. National council of Technical Education ? # Y $ @ *
5. University Grants Commission ? # Y $ @
6. National Council of Education and Training ? # Y $ @
7. UNESCO ? # Y $ @
8. University ? # Y $ @
9. Polytechnics ? # Y $ @ *
10. Engineering Colleges ? # Y $ @ *
11. National Project Implementation Council ? # Y $ @ *
12. Industries ? # Y $ @ *
13. Other Teacher Training Institutions ? # Y $
14. Publishers ? # Y $ @

Abbreviations:

(Y)- Yes, but depends on the information; if the relevant information is not shared, it will be aid in desirable performance

(?)- Possible, but depends on the information

($)- In policy decision making the Board has to know the facts

(#)- Relates to funds

(@)- Depends upon the situation that pertains to extension centers

(*)-Depends on the situation that pertains to the state technical department

 

Table 2

Negative Impact of non-communication of vital letters/circulars information concerning the Institute which are based on the omission on meaning-centered education and the impact on the faculty morale

Sl.No. Type of Information not communicated Negative Impact on the Institute/ Faculty Impact on the faculty morale
1 Ministry’s circular on deputation of the faculty to foreign countries like Mauritius The faculty of this institute lost the chance of applying to the post, however, the CEO applied, but could not get selection due to low educational achievement The faculty came to know the circular from other institutes. Morale has gone to very low.
2 Option to change from CPF to GPF cum Pension Scheme. Many faculty members lost the retirement benefit and pension. Low morale and faculty were forced to legal intervention.
3 Appointment of External Evaluation Committee for evaluating the performance of the institute. One of the faculty members came to know this from other training institutes and prepared a performance and achievement report for his department and submitted to the CEO along with the committee’s appointment letter. Later hurriedly the CEO asked the rest of the departments to prepare short reports without disclosing the need and the context. The meaning full education service is lost. The hurriedly preparedFinal consolidated report was not discussed with the faculty, and did not include key achievements and the problems faced by the institute. The evaluation committee did not appreciate the work done by the institute and lost the opportunity to get some of the problems solved.
4 Approval of the ministry for restarting the post graduate departments The action was not taken to restart the PG programs immediately. Since, three years were lost, the approval process as per the affiliating university has to be obtained from the scratch. The concept of providing meaningful program was lost. Three batches of master’s degree program could not be implemented.57 participants lost the chance of getting the post graduate degree.
5 Direction of the secretary of Ministry of Human Resource Development to the CEO to apply for the Deemed University status. The faculty came to know from other training institutes about the initiatives of the Ministry of Human Resource Development. The CEO of this institute did not prepare any proposal. This action pulled down the initiative of the secretary, Ministry of Human Resource Development. All the four institutes have lost the golden chance to become Deemed University in Technical Education. The concept of meaningful- education was lost forever.
6 Communication on the Direct Central Assistance to the state governments to offer grants-in-aid for the establishment of the polytechnics in the districts where there is no such institute. Only during the review meeting, the senior professors came to know the status. The institute lost the opportunity to assist the states in planning industry relevant diploma programs. The senior professors felt that they were not taken into confidence in key activities. This short coming failed to plan meaningful-l programs.
7 Communication regarding the preparation of agenda for inter teacher training institutes’ meeting at the ministry for the preparation of National Vocational Skill Development Framework which was assigned to first teacher training institute. Some of the senior faculty members were asked to prepare the presentation in meeting even without knowing the communication regarding the activities expected from all teacher training institutes and their presentation for the sessions. Poor way of pooling the talents. No focus on the key result areas. No focus on the meaning-centered institute.
8 Non-communicating the report on the evaluation of academic performance and suggestions for the future development of third teacher training institute to the Academic Council and Board of Governors This report was not communicated to any statutory body of institute’s governance. Time to time the CEO has stated that a committee has been appointed by the Ministry of Human Resource Development or by the Board of Governors. He is also a member of the committee. He never realized the importance of the report which would have made the road map for meaningful institute. The Board of Governors also lost the chance of considering the trends in achievement and reviewing the suggestions for the future growth. The CEO cannot become one of the committee members since his leadership has also to be evaluated.

 

Table 3

Analysis of the Implementation of the Mission which is linked to the planning meaningful education

Sl. No. Current Statement of Mission Outcome
1. Offer quality, flexible, relevant and cost effective training and development programs for teachers and other staff of Technical Education, Management Education and Vocational Education and Training systems in various modes including web based one. M. Tech. Ed as a flexible program has not been accepted by the current director of the third Institute and hence, he cancelled it.He planned to introduce Post-Graduate Degree Diploma Program in Sustainable Development which is two years duration. The entry will be opened both for B.Sc. and B.E graduates. He planned to offer this as a self supporting program. He also planned to grant scholarship of $ 100/- per month for two students of this program. Entry of two different groups, one with science background and other with engineering background will create conflict, and the professional competencies with respect to career are not explored. The students of master degree in engineering education did not get any scholarship which is a National Council approved professional program. Also the proposed PG Diploma is not as per the mandate. The graduates will not be qualified to get jobs in Engineering colleges/ Polytechnics. The concept of offering meaningful programs was lost again.
2. Demonstrate leadership by organizing dynamic, leading edge and value addition programs and providing services such as development of curricula and instructional resources to meet the changing needs of the industry and the community. The proposal for bidding to undertake the evaluation of competencies of general managers of ordnance factories was rejected by the director.He also stopped the bidding for offering summer and winter schools for Non residents which are under the Ministry of External Affairs. This again showed the lack of planning meaningful programs.
3. Develop into a Deemed University in order to provide effective and efficient services to the teachers of technical and vocational education systems. Even though, the Secretary of Ministry of Education suggested to develop a proposal for Deemed University status for third institute, the then director did not take any initiative for the same.
4. Play a change agent role to implement innovations and facilitate their successful implementation in the client system. This is done through various short-term programs. However, needed long-term programs leading to meaningful M. Tech /M.E were not institutionalized.
5. Help in solving problems in Technical, Management, and Vocational Education and tackling issues, in a proactive manner, research, and development and extension activities. This is done through various programs through extension centers but, sometimes the faculty members of the extension centers were excluded in the seminars for assessing the needs of the state. No separate short-term courses for the engineering college faculty were planned for 2011-2012. Vocational education is being looked after by National council for training, and through industrial training institutes. Hence they need not be included in the vision statement.
6. Establish and foster collaborations with industries, state, national and international agencies committed to the development of Technical, and Vocational Education Systems. Till now there is no attempt to establish a Consultancy Center for industries. Any meaningful institute should design appropriate centers and departments to carry out the mission.
7. Create an environment which promotes a sense of belongingness, collaborative decision making, accountability and continuous learning, which would bring out the best in our human resources. The director-in-charges were NOT given the communications received to take speedy action on the policy matters. There is no delegation to the Heads of the Departments. Even the designation ‘Head of the Department’ was removed for all the Departments in brochure for short-term courses by the current director of the third institute.

 

Table 4

Stated Objectives and Achievement of the third Institute which did not follow the principles of meaningful education

Sl. No. Objectives Achievement Outcome
1 To act as a center for offering quality training programs for teachers as per needs of the client system, covering the entire gamut of technical education including engineering colleges, polytechnics, vocational and management education at regional and national level. Short-term courses and Ph.D. programs are tobe implemented not only in the Institute, but also in all extension  centers based on the identified needs of the client system for the polytechnics in that state. For the engineering college faculty, only enterprise based programs were offered. Content updating programs are yet to be planned for the engineering college faculty. Training the trainers programs are to be planned and conducted in all extension centers  as   flexible programs.The third institute has not been included as one of the Institutes to offer Ph.D. programs under National Council’s faculty development scheme. The extension centers could not offer Ph.D. programs, since, they are located not in the affiliating university’s jurisdiction.
2 To arrange training for teachers in industries on a cooperative education plan. In the last 15 years, on – the job training in the industries were not offered. There is   no cooperative plan for training program. A set of modern industries specific on-   the job training programs are  needed.
3 To undertake systemic research to provide inputs for development of technical systems and their management. Only under the World Bank assisted projects, systemic research program were undertaken. There is a need to undertake state specific  research projects like planning new technician, engineeringand non-formal skill development   programs, developing instructional  materials, and  institutional development projects. Systemic research projects are to be undertaken in collaboration with the states.
4 To undertake and guide research for improvement of teaching–learning environment in technical and vocational educational institutions. This is under the World Bank assisted projects and as a part of Ph.D. work, Master degree dissertation. Appropriate state specific action research works are needed. Deemed University status would help to achieve this objective. This will create meaningful institute which would focus on transformation and high performance.
5 To design instructional  strategies for production of multimedia learning materials These instructional materials, multimedia learning packages and video programs are to be taken as a total learning package for cutting edge courses. Develop them on project mode. Collaborate with the Curriculum Development Centers (CDC) of states. Since the concept of meaningful programs are nor thought of, the system does not bring high performance.
6 To develop and disseminate learning resources like Text books, Laboratory Manuals, Video Programs, Computer Assisted Instructional Multimedia  Learning  Packages to technical and vocational institutions and other organizations. Sporadic attempts were made and met with a partial success.No linkage between the materials and media. They were loosely coupled. Text books are marketed by the publishers. Media packages are sold directly by the Institute. There is linkage between them. Integrate production and marketing systematically to bring meaningful instructional materials.
7 To offer programs for technical and vocational teachers in distance learning mode using state of the art technologies. Integrate on-line and contact mode. Indentify the needs. Plan flexible Training of Trainers (TOT) programs. And implement TOT. On-line programs are to be planned based on the needs of the faculty members.
8 To offer courses/ programs for technical and vocational teachers to suit overseas demand especially SAARC and ASEAN countries. Being done, the participants are from the whole world. The assistance from the Ministry of External Affairs and Ministry of Finance could be fully utilized. Most successful programs but the vision is limited.
9 To institute and award fellowships, scholarships, prizes and medals. The university first in Master program has to be given prize as other national institutes are doing. Also the best overseas teachers’ projects could be given prizes. The academic Council has passed the resolution for the award of the prizes. Implementation was not done. The concept of meaningful programs and services need to be remained too often.
10 To collaborate with community and industry in organizing continuing and non-formal vocational education programs and providing extension and consultancy services. Yes, it is being done. The faculty should be encouraged to undertake the projects without any barrier. They should be facilitated to use resources which are generated. There is a need to establish a continuing education center for this activity. The individual creative talents should be curbed.
11 To undertake consultancy and extension work for industry, technical institutions/ organizations. Same as above. The coordinator should be delegated with administrative authority to plan and implement the programs. A consultancy center is to be established for bidding the projects. The quality of the project depends on the creative talent of the key resource person. Many times the CEOs pose as key resource person.
12 To serve the states better, establish extension centers of the Institute in different states with the approval of Government. An extension center could be established in the Union territory. One of the union territories has come as an educational hub.
13 To provide support services to Government of India schemes related to technical and vocational education system and as entrusted by Ministry of Education, Government of India, from time to time. Yes, there are being done as per the needs of the project.The continuing education center is very much essential for institutionalizing the activities. A center for skill development is to be established along with the sustainability center.
14 To co-operate  with educational or other institutions in any part of the world having objects wholly or partly similar to those of the institute  by exchange of teachers and scholars and generally in such manner as may be conducive to common objects. International seminars and conferences are to be conducted periodically with net worked universities. Appropriate consortium of deemed universities and engineering colleges is be established. Current Center for International programs and projects could be empowered to additional lead in this activity but many times the faculty were denied permission to participate in the international conferences and seminars.

 

Table 5

Ongoing Learning through overseas training of the faculty (data were obtained from the faculty members)

Sl.No. Learning undergone Impact on the performance Outcome
1 Instructional planning and teacher training, curriculum design and instructional materials development through Collaboration with Colleges of Education in United Kingdom. (1964-1978) (11  faculty members [27.5%] , and  one was given long-term program M.Sc. {Information Technology [IT]}Second Phase: Information technology, computer application and technical education (1985-1993). [3  faculty members [7.5%] were given training in IT ] The engineering faculty members were trained in the technical teacher training and curriculum development and instructional materials development in the Huddersfield College of Education.  Later Huddersfield College of Education has been upgraded to a university.The institute established a computer center and the polytechnic teachers were trained. Post Graduate Diploma in Computer Application was established to train the polytechnic teachers. Successfully the polytechnics teachers were trained in computer application. Text books were also published. 

Polytechnics established diploma in computer science and engineering.

This has proved the concept of meaningful education programs.

2 Development of educational media like multimedia learning packages and film production, educational research through UNDP (1977-1982). (8 faculty members [20 %] were trained). The Institute established film production facilities, developed multi media learning packages in engineering subjects, and introduced educational research. Later digital multimedia replaced the hardware based multimedia, and the video production replaced the film production. Educational research alone contributed to the system development.
3 Training programs under World Bank assisted projects (I and II), {11 faculty members [17.8 %] were trained}.Learning areas: Digital multi media, educational research, and  educational economics Three faculty members declined the offer. Eleven completed the training program. Digital multimedia has got more promise. Technical Educational research produced a great impact. The Institute has become a lead center for technical education research. The concept of creating meaningful programs is slowly institutionalized.
4 Training programs under World Bank assisted project III [director was sent for a study visit] The director has been deputed to US for studying the advances in technical education system. But his term was over within two years. The impact was less on the system.
5 Training programs under bilateral exchange of the faculty [Principal and one faculty were sent on study visits] A few faculty members and the principal were sent on study visits. The impact is not measurable.
6 Training programs under Colombo Plan Staff College for Technician Education Four faculty members went. Topics are related to the Institute’s needs. Impacts are on curriculum development and material development and research.
7 Training programs under APEID of UNESCO [ four faculty members (10%)  were sent for participation in the technical working group meetings] Programs produced leadership in curriculum development, innovation and extension. The overseas programs are due to leadership development through the APEID exposure.
8 Training programs under CIICP [seven  faculty members (17.5%) were sent for study  visits or three months  training] Institute offered many focused training programs in continuing education, sustainable environment and educational planning for the faculty members in collaboration with community colleges in Canada. Nine polytechnics benefitted, but these polytechnics simultaneously underwent World Bank assisted project in technician education.

 

Table 6

Results of Relentless Focus on the Customers / Clients / Stake holders for offering meaningful education service based on the data gathered from the heads of the departments, newsletters, websites and annual reports of the institutes.

Sl.No. Client /Customer focus Outcome
1. Government of India- Ministry of education:  Implementation of policies of the Government/National Project Implementation Unit. Implementation of direct central assisted schemes like new polytechnics in districts which did not have one; Women hostels; Community development through polytechnics; Academic consultancy to World Bank assisted projects in technician education; Research work as desired by the World Bank in the project polytechnics, Technical Education Quality Improvement [TEQIP], Summer Schools for the engineering college faculty, Planning public-private-partnership in establishing the technical institutes.
2. State Governments/ Directorate of  Technical Education/ Curriculum Development/ Examination Training of the faculty through extension centers, Assistance to    prepare Detailed Project Reports, Guidance to implement projects, Community Development through Polytechnics, Accreditation, Developing new curricula, Revising old curricula, Flexible post graduate programs, Examination reforms, Assistance to State Boards of Technical Education.
3 Government Polytechnics   Training of the faculty, Instructional materials, Instructional aids, video and multi media programs
4 Private Polytechnics Training of the faculty free of cost
5 Engineering Colleges/ Technical Universities Training of the faculty, and guidance in planning TEQIP programs, creation of centers of excellence, establishing consultancy programs, Effective-Industry- Institute Partnership
6 Deemed Universities Training of the faculty, Institutional development
7  Ministry of External Affairs, National Government Planning overseas teachers and executive programs, Assistance in ITEC / SCAAP projects in other developing countries through bilateral agreements
8 Ministry of Finance, National Government Assistance in Technical Cooperation Scheme (TCS) projects: planning and implementation
9 UNESCO/APEID Sharing the innovations, assistance to ACEID, conducting technical working group meetings, workshops, technical staff development programs /peripatetic seminars, internship for the members of the associated centers
10 Industries/ government departments Consultancy projects, timely completion of them, and reports, training of the executives/managers/technicians/skilled workers, management development programs
11 Affiliating University Curricula of PG Programs, selection of examiners, conduct of examinations, responses to questionnaires, Assistance staff development colleges
13 Other training institutes Collaboration in centrally funded projects, mutual assistance in project development,
14 Faculty Timely promotion, no discrimination during the screening the application, opportunities for excellent  training, resources, sharing the project gains, fair treatment, equity, Delegation of authority to decide on the given projects and programs, adequate resources, support staff and funds for the purchase of new equipment, maintenance of the equipment, consumables, empowerment to take project bidding, delegation to select project associates, nomination to attend the seminars and conferences based on the papers selected, respect for leadership, timely payment of advances, transparency in decision making, communication of information received from the ministry,
15 Staff Promotion, loans, pay as per the rules, quarters as per the rules, assistance as the rules of the government.
16 Research Scholars Assistance in research work, permission to attend seminars and conferences, medical assistance, payment of  contingency grant,  medical assistance, quarters
17 Board of Governors Rapid development, excellence, outstanding performance/ global leadership
18 Overseas Participants Timely payment of stipend, development of concepts and intellectual skills, problem solving skills, outstation trips, excellent facilities in the guest house, excellent food, facilities for outdoor games, mobile connectivity
19 Developing countries Models for the development of technical education, planning appropriate programs, development of learning materials, teacher training, non-formal education programs, assistance in planning bilateral assistance
20 Participants of short-term courses Excellent hostel facilities, out standing training programs. Course materials, very good  mess, and industrial trips

 

Table 7

Interpretation of the activities of the subsystems which could develop meaningful education based on the discussion with the faculty members, annual reports, websites and news letters.

Sl. No. Sub System- Administration Experience of the Faculty
1 Recruitment As per the service and recruitment rules, no change in the job specification.
2 Pay scale and basic pay fixation Pay scale is to be as per the government approval, pay fixation as per the years of experience, achievement and highest educational qualification that the applicant possesses.
3 Pay protection during the pay revision The advance increments granted in fixing basic pay has to be protected when the new pay scale is being implemented within a short period.
4 Payment of various allowances as per the latest pay commission Recently the basic pay and grade pay were modified by a committee, but certain faculty went to the court and got orders in their favor.
5 Options to change to pension scheme The information was not circulated; hence two faculty members were affected.
6 Permission to attend seminars and payment of travel and registration fees as per the Government of India Even though fifth and sixth pay commissions recommended many incentives, the directors did not implement with the spirit and letter. These de-motivated the faculty.
7 Forwarding the applications to the state/central recruitment agencies as per the rules Many times the faculty were denied to avail the opportunity. Even if they nominations through the Ministry of education, they are not permitted to utilize the selection.
8 In-charge ship as per the clean records and seniority. This was not followed uniformly. The in-charges were not given opportunity to act like in-charges.

 

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